Cyst

A cyst is an abnormal closed cavity in the body lined by epithelium (membrane tissue) containing a liquid or semisolid material. There are several different types of cysts that are common in medical dentistry. The main types of cysts are outline below with their symptoms and treatments

· Apical cyst:

Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex (tip) of a tooth with a non-vital pulp or defective root canal filling. It is usually located near the jaw. There are no clinical features and treatment is the removal of the cause and removal of the lesion.

· Calcifying odontogenic cyst

A rare well-circumscribed solid lesion that contains ”ghost cells” and spherical calcifications. Usually occurs in people under 40 years old and in the incisor-canine region. Symptoms of this type of cyst include lesions appearing as focal localized swellings a generalized expansion of the jaw. Treatment is usually the removal of the cyst.

· Dentigerous cyst

This is a jaw cyst formed by degeneration of the enamel organ of a tooth prior to its eruption located in the expected position of the tooth’s crown. Dentigerous cysts are common in wisdom teeth and occur between the ages of 20 –30 years old. Symptoms include swelling and pain in the jaw. Treatment of this type of cyst requires the use of curettage to remove the cyst.

· Eruption cyst

This is a dentigerous cyst presenting as a dilatation of the follicular space about the crown of the erupting deciduous or permanent teeth in children and is caused by the accumulation of tissue fluid or blood. No treatment is necessary as the cyst often ruptures spontaneously.

· Gingival cyst

This is a cyst of the soft tissue of either the free or attached gingiva presenting as a small well-circumscribed painless swelling. This type of cyst is uncommon and is located in the cuspid-premolar region. The cyst is less than 1 cm in diameter and once removed they do not reoccur.

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